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|1||10/10||HW 1||HW 1 Sol.|
|2||10/17||HW 2||HW 2 Sol.|
|3||10/26||HW 3||HW 3 Sol.|
|4||11/7||HW 4||HW 4 Sol.|
|5||11/14||HW 5||HW 5 Sol.|
|6||11/21||HW 6||HW 6 Sol.|
- Homework assignments will be distributed on Mondays and are due in class the following Monday.
- Late homework sets will be penalized by 25% off achievable score per day late (exceptions are possible for medical reasons, conference travel, etc., if arranged prior to the due date with the instructor or TA).
- There will be 6 or 7 assignments; the lowest score will be dropped in the final grade.
- Collaboration on homework sets is encouraged, but please turn in solutions individually and state on your solutions with whom you collaborated.
- Final project: 30%.
|Composition of the atmosphere. Observed features of the atmospheric circulation. Global (TOA) energy balance. Surface energy balance.||Phenomenological overview. Hartmann, ch. 1, 2, 4.|
|Global energy balance (continued). Atmospheric radiative transfer: Planck function, Stefan-Boltzmann law, absorption characteristics of molecules.||Earth's energy balance. Hartmann, ch. 3.|
|Radiative transfer: absorption, optical depth. Stratospheric ozone.||Hartmann, ch. 3. McElroy, ch. 13. Ozone|
|Gray-gas radiative transfer. Static stability of the atmosphere.||Pierrehumbert, ch. 4; Marshall & Plumb, ch. 4.|
|Energy transport in the atmosphere. Angular momentum balance.||Hartmann, ch. 6; Energy Transport.|
|Geostrophic and thermal winds. Angular momentum transport.||Class notes.|
|Hadley circulation and surface winds. Hydrologic cycle, evaporation, precipitation.||Hadley Circulation. Hartmann, ch. 5.|
|Hydrologic cycle and response to climate change.||Held and Soden (2006). Hydrologic Cycle|
|Water isotopes in the hydrologic cycle.||Water isotopes|
|Chemistry of aerosol formation. Climate feedbacks.||Aerosols slides. Feedbacks review|
Radiative Transfer, Climate Sensitivity
- Manabe and Strickler 1964
- First detailed calculation of radiative-convective equilibrium, including the effect of various gases on the equilibrium.
- Manabe and Whetherald 1967
- First calculation of climate sensitivity in radiative-convective equilibrium with water vapor feedback.
- Vonder Haar and Suomi 1971 (Haley)
- First satellite measurements of Earth's radiation budget.
- Charney et al. 1979 (Avin)
- The "Charney Report" gave the first comprehensive assessment of the effects of an increase in carbon dioxide concentrations on climate; its main conclusions have stood the test of time.
- Hansen et al. 1981 (Vivian)
- A more detailed early calculation of the effects of CO2 on Earth's climate.
- Held and Soden 2000
- Comprehensive review of how water vapor feedback affects global warming.
- Budyko 1969; Sellers 1969 (Ted)
- Pair of papers showing the possibility of multiple equilibria in the climate system on the basis of energy balance models with simple representations of meridional energy fluxes.
- Halley 1686
- One of the first global wind maps, a theory of monsoons that still has some currency, and a theory of trade winds that is less current.
- Hadley 1735 (Tobias)
- First paper correctly recognizing the importance of Earth's rotation for the wind distribution.
- Riehl and Malkus 1958
- Equatorial energy balance and how it can be maintained with updrafts in relatively few cumulonimbus clouds.
- Lorenz 1983
- A short summary of the history of prevailing ideas about the atmospheric circulation.
- Emanuel 1987 (Cheikh)
- A thermodynamic theory of how the maximum intensity of hurricanes depends on climate.
Atmospheric Chemistry, Clouds
- Lovelock 1971
- First measurements of CFC's in Earth's atmosphere.
- Crutzen 1970 (Alex)
- This paper established reaction mechanisms by which stratospheric ozone can be destroyed. Crutzen shared the 1995 Nobel Prize for this work with Molina and Rowland.
- Molina and Rowland 1974 (Hao)
- This paper warned of the dangers of ozone depletion through CFC's. Molina and Rowland shared the 1995 Nobel Prize for this work with Crutzen.
- Crutzen and Arnold 1986 (Leah)
- Establishes the importance of polar stratospheric nitric acid clouds for ozone depletion.
- Twomey 1974 (Becky)
- Classic paper postulating that pollution (aerosols) may affect cloud albedo and thus climate.
- Charlson et al. 1987 (Hank)
- The "CLAW" hypothesis: how biological regulation of the climate may be possible through the effects of temperature and sunlight on the phytoplankton population and dimethylsulphide production, and their effect on cloud formation.