Our geologists work around the world on problems of tectonics, petrology and geological hazards. The geobiology program focuses on understanding the history of life in the Solar system, and the impact the biosphere has had on the earth during the past 4 billion years. Geochemists study the chemistry of the cosmos, the earth's mantle and everything in between as well instrumentation development, mineralogy, and isotope geochemistry. Our geophysicists maintain Caltech's Seismological Laboratory and help maintain the Southern California Seismic Network and the Southern California Earthquake Data Center as well as maintaining programs in mineral physics, geodynamics and computational seismology. Planetary scientists investigate planetary surfaces, atmospheres, and interiors and planetary astronomy. Caltech's Environmental Science initiative is a cross-disciplinary program involving Geological and Planetary Sciences, Engineering and Applied Science, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and is concerned with the impact of human and natural processes on the environment.