Jess F. Adkins
Smits Family Professor of Geochemistry and Global Environmental Science
Research InterestsGeochemical investigations of past climates using corals, sediments and their interstitial waters; rate of deep ocean circulation and its relation to mechanisms of rapid climate changes; metals as tracers of environmental processes; radiocarbon and U-series chronology; chemical oceanography; biomineralization of CaCO3 skeletons; sulfur biogeochemistry and early earth records of sulfur isotopes.
Deep-Sea Corals and Time Series of Deep-Ocean Change
By developing precise high-resolution sampling using lasers and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry, we are trying to actualize the potential of this new archive and generate high-resolution records that match or exceed the ice cores' fidelity.
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Rate of Deep-Sea Overturning in the Past
Sediment Accumulation Rates from Excess 230Th Measurements
This problem can be neatly overcome by normalizing to a measured initial excess of 230Th. Thorium is so insoluble in seawater that virtually regardless of the total particle rain to the sea floor all of the 230Th produced by 234U decay is scavenged out of solution. As the Uranium concentration is conservative (it only varies with salinity), the 230Th rain rate is both constant and known through time. This feature of Th marine chemistry means that its concentration in the sediment only varies as the sediment rain rate and can therefore be used to convert percentage measurements into true accumulation fluxes. We have been using these measurements to monitor surface water production variations and atmospheric dust deposition rates at both the Bermuda Rise (in collaboration with Lloyd Keigwin of WHOI and Ed Boyle of MIT) and off the coast of Africa (in collaboration with Peter deMenocal and Joe Ortiz at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory). The figure below shows how variations in the terrigenous accumulation at our site both induces changes in the %CaCO3 and masks times of actual CaCO3 accumulation changes. The data also show that transitions into and out of the African Humid period are abrupt and fundamentally different than the gradual insolation forcing over this time period.
Pore Water Records of Past Deep-Ocean Salinity and δ18O
Vital Effects and Biomineralization
Papers (PDF version)
Cobb, K.M., Adkins, J.F., Partin, J.W., and Clark, B. (2007) Regional-scale climate influences on temporal variations of rainwater and cave dripwater oxygen isotopes in northern Borneo. In press EPSL.
Partin, J.W., Cobb, K.M., Adkins, J.F., Clark, B., and Fernandez, D.P. (2007) Stalagmite records of western tropical Pacific climate since the Last Glacial Maximum. In press Nature.
Waller, R.G., Shank, T.M., Adkins, J.F., and Robinson, L.F. (2007) Ancient DNA techniques: Applications for deep-water corals. In press Bulletin of Marine Science.
Robinson, L.F., Adkins, J.F., Scheirer, D.S., Fernandez, D.F., Gagnon, A., and Waller, R. (2007) Deep-sea scleractinian coral age and depth distributions in the WN Atlantic for the last 225 thousand years. In press Bulletin of Marine Science.
Gagnon, A.C., Adkins, J.F., Fernandez, D.P., and Robinson, L.F. (2007) Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca vital effects correlated with skeletal architecture in a scleractinian deep-sea coral and the role of Rayleigh fractionation. EPSL, 261, 280-295.
Liu, Z., et al. (2007) Simulating the Transient Evolution and Abrupt Change of North Africa Atmosphere-Ocean-Terrestrial Ecosystem in the Holocene. Quaternary Science Reviews, 26, 1818-1837.
Lynch-Steiglitz, et al. (2007) Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the Last Glacial Maximum. Science, 316, 66-69. (pdf)
van de Flierdt, Robinson, L.F., Adkins, J.F., Hemming, S.R., and Goldstein, S.L. (2006) Temporal stability of the neodymium isotope signature of the Holocene to Glacial North Atlantic. Paleoceanography, 21, PA4102, doi:10.1029/2006PA001294. (pdf)
Eltgroth, S.F., Adkins, J.F., Robinson, L.F., Southon, J. and Kashgarian, M. (2006) A deep-sea coral record of North Atlantic radiocarbon through the Younger Dryas: Evidence for Intermediate/Deep Water Reorganization. Paleoceanography, 21, PA4207, doi:10.1029/2005PA001192. (pdf)
Adkins, J.F., deMenocal, P.D., and Eshel, G. (2006) The "African Humid Period" and the Record of Marine Upwelling from Excess 230Th in ODP Hole 658C. Paleoceanography 21, PA4203, doi:10.1029/2005PA001200. (pdf)
Tambutté, S., Tambutté, E., Zoccola, D., Caminiti, N., Lotto, S., Allemand, D., and Adkins, J.F. (2006) Characterization and role of carbonic anhydrase in the calcification process of the azooxanthellate coral Tubastrea aurea. Marine Biology. doi: 10.1007/s00227-006-0452-8. (pdf)
Robinson, L.F., Adkins, J.F., Fernandez, D., Burnett, D., Wang, S.-L., Gagnon, A., and Krakauer, N. (2006) Primary Uranium distribution in scleractinian corals and its implications for U-series dating. G-cubed 7, Q05022, doi:10.1029/2005GC001138 (pdf)
Gosh, P., Adkins, J.F., Affek, H., Balta, B., Guo, W., Schauble, E., Schrag, D.P., and Eiler, J. (2006) 13C-18O bonds in carbonate minerals: A new kind of paleothermometer. GCA 70, 1439-1456. (pdf)
Robinson, L.F., Adkins, J.F., Keigwin, L.D., Southon, J., Fernandez, D., Want, S-L. and Scheirer, D. (2005) Radiocarbon variability in the Western North Atlantic during the last deglaciation. Science 310, 1469 – 1473, â€¨doi: 10.1126/science.1114832. (pdf)
Adkins, J.F., Ingersoll, A.P. and Pasquero, C. (2005) Rapid climate change and conditional instability of the glacial deep ocean from the thermobaric effect and geothermal heating. Quaternary Science Reviews, 24, 581-594. (pdf)
Adkins, J.F., Henderson, G., Wang, S.-L., O'Shea, S. and Mokadem, F. (2004) Growth rates of the deep-sea scleractinia D. cristagalli and E. rostrata. EPSL, 227, 481-490. (pdf)
Thresher, R., Rintoul, S., Koslow, J.A., Weidman, C., Adkins, J.F. and Proctor, C. (2004) Oceanic evidence of climate change in southern Australia over the last three centuries. GRL, 31 (7) art. no. L07212, doi: 10.1029/2003GL018869. (pdf)
Adkins, J.F. and Schrag, D.P. (2003) Reconstructing Last Glacial Maximum bottom water salinities from deep-sea sediment pore fluid profiles. EPSL, 216, 109-123 (pdf)
Meissner, K.J., Schmittner, A., Weaver, A.J. and Adkins, J.F. (2003) The ventilation of the North Atlantic Ocean during the Last Glacial Maximum-a comparison between simulated and observed radiocarbon ages. Paleoceanography, 18, 1023, doi:10.1029/2002PA000762, 2003 (pdf)
Adkins, J.F., Boyle, E.A. and Curry, W.B. (2003) Stable isotopes in deep-sea corals and a new mechanism for "vital effects". GCA, 67, 1129-1143. (pdf)
Cutler, K.B., Edwards, R.L., Taylor, F.W., Cheng, H., Adkins, J.F., Gallup, C.D., Cutler, P.M., Burr, G.S., Chappell, J. and Bloom, A.L. (2003) Rapid sea-level fall and deep-ocean temperature change since the Last Intergalcial. EPSL, 206, 253-271.
Adkins, J.F., McIntyre, K. and Schrag, D.P. (2002) The salinity, temperature and d18O content of the glacial deep ocean. Science, 298, 1769-1773. (pdf)
Adkins, J.F., Kashgarian, M., Cheng, H., Druffel, E.R.M., Boyle, E.A., Griffin, S., Edwards, L. and Shen, R. (2002) Radiocarbon dating of deep-sea corals. Radiocarbon, 44, 567-580. (pdf)
Schrag, D.P., Adkins, J.F, McIntyre, K., Alexander, J., Hodell, D.A., Charles, C. and McManus, J. (2002) The oxygen isotopic composition of seawater during the last glacial maximum. Quaternary Science Reviews, 21, 331-342. (pdf)
Adkins, J.F. and Schrag, D.P. (2001) Pore fluid constraints on past deep-ocean temperature and salinity. Geophysical Research Letters, 28, 771-774. (pdf)
Cheng, H., Adkins, J.F., Edwards, R.L. and Boyle, E.A. (2000) 230Th dating of deep-sea corals. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 64, 2401-2416 (pdf)
deMenocal, P., Ortiz, J., Guilderson, T., Adkins, J., Sarnthein, M., Baker, L. and Yarusinsky, M. (2000) Abrupt onset and termination of the African Humid Period: Rapid climate responses to gradual insolation forcing. Quaternary Science Rev., 19, 347-361. (pdf)
Adkins, J.F. and Boyle, E.A. (1999) Age screening of deep-sea corals and the deep ocean record of climate change at 15.4 ka. Reconstructing Ocean History: A Window into the Future. F. Abrantes and A. Mix, eds. Plenum (New York). p. 103-120 (pdf)
Adkins, J.F., Cheng, H., Boyle, E.A., Druffel, E.R.M. and Edwards, R.L. (1998) Deep-sea coral evidence for rapid changes in ventilation of the deep North Atlantic at 15.4 ka. Science, 280, 725-728. (pdf)
Adkins, J.F., Boyle, E.A., Keigwin, L.D. and Cortijo, E. (1997) Variability of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation during the last interglacial period. Nature, 390, 154-156. (pdf)
Adkins, J.F. and Boyle, E.A. (1997) Changing atmospheric D14C and the record of deep water paleo-ventilation ages. Paleoceanography, 12, 337-344. (pdf)
van Geen, A., Adkins, J.F., Boyle, E.A., Nelson, C.H. and Palanques, A. (1997) A 120-year record of widespread contamination from mining of the Iberian Pyrite Belt. Geology, 25, 291-294. (pdf)
Mendez, J., Guieu, C., and Adkins, J.F. (2007) Atmospheric input of Mn and Fe to the ocean: Results from seawater dissolution experiments performed with Saharan and North-American dusts. Submitted to Marine Chemistry.
Druffel, E.R.M., Robinson, L., Griffin, S., Halley, R, Southon, J., and Adkins, J.F. (2007) Low reservoir ages for the surface ocean from Mid-Holocene Florida corals. Submitted to Paleoceanography.