Brian P. Wernicke

Chandler Family Professor of Geology
B.S., University of Southern California, 1978; Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1982. Visiting Professor, Caltech, 1990; Professor of Geology, 1992-2001; Chandler Professor, 2001-.

Research Interests

The research by Wernicke and his group is primarily observational, and is strongly multidisciplinary and collaborative. Current projects include studying large-scale intracontinental extension, mainly in the Basin and Range province of the western United States; studies of high-temperature evolution of the deeper parts of collision zones; and studies of active tectonics of diffuse zones of intracontinental deformation. With field observation and geological mapping as a foundation, students and postdocs in the group address problems using a wide spectrum of methods, including sequence stratigraphy, paleomagnetism, geochronology, petrologic thermobarometry, remote sensing and GPS geodesy.

Large-Scale Intracontinental Extension

The tectonics of horizontal contraction of the earth's continental lithosphere have been well studied for more than a century, in orogens such as the Alps, Caledonides and Appalachians. Equivalent understanding of extension has arisen mainly over the last decade, spurred by geologic field studies in the Basin and Range province of western North America, the earth's best exposed region of large-scale intracontinental extension. Recent work by Wernicke and postdoctoral fellow J.K. Snow in the central Basin and Range (lat 37N) demonstrates about 250 km of west-northwest translation of the Sierra Nevada relative to the Colorado Plateau since 20 Ma, accommodated along both normal and strike-slip fault systems.

Geological reconstructions show the principal zones of extension, now 100-150 km wide, are nearly completely stripped of their upper 12-15 km of crust. The lack of major topographic or gravity anomalies over the extended zones has prompted two major projects, BARGE (Basin and Range Geoscientific Experiment) and the Southern Sierra Nevada Continental Dynamics Project, aimed at understanding how the deep crust responds to extension by imaging the deep structure of the eastern and western boundaries, respectively, of the central Basin and Range. These projects involve explosion seismology, "marine" deep reflection profiling (off barges in Lake Mead), magnetotelluric imaging, xenolith studies, geologic mapping, thermochronology and thermobarometry, and paleomagnetism. One of the main results coming from this work is that the complex patchwork of extended upper crustal blocks are floating on a fluid deep crustal layer, which is appears to have been "pumped" into the region between the separating blocks, completely reconstituting the upper crust. Modeling studies suggest this layer may be as much as four to five orders of magnitude less viscous than the upper mantle.



Cross-sectional evolution of extended upper continental crust, after Wernicke (1992).

Deep Structure of Collision Zones

A largely unsolved problem in geology is the role of deeper crustal layers during mountain building. Physical models of the deep crust have largely outpaced our ability to test them, especially for rock assemblages deformed and metamorphosed beyond the greenschist facies. Wernicke and colleagues are undertaking studies that combine thermobarometric results with high temperature thermochronometers (especially the Sm/Nd system) in the collisional belts of the Pacific Northwest. The Sm/Nd system has proved particularly effective, because major metamorphic phases such as garnet, plagioclase and hornblende close to diffusion of rare earths at upper amphibolite facies conditions (600-700 C). Thus events that may be difficult to date with traditional methods, either because of high diffusivity (closure below 500 C) or restriction to trace phases, may be resolved to within 1-2 million years.



Horizontal normal fault cutting Mississippian Redwall Limestone, Gold Butte area, southern Nevada. Dark layer above fault has been displaced to the left. Cliff face is approximately 250 m high.

Active Tectonics of Diffuse Continental Deformation

The advent of Global Positioning System (GPS) geodesy over the last five years is revolutionizing the study of actively deforming regions of the earth's crust. Understanding the relationship between elastic strain accumulation and release has generally been focused on major plate-boundary faults such as the San Andreas. Less is known, however, about how earthquakes and strain accumulation are related in wide, diffusely deforming belts of continental crust away from the major plate-boundary faults. As recent events such as the Landers and Northridge earthquakes attest, understanding the non-San Andreas components of strain accumulation is both a scientifically and societally relevant problem. Wernicke's group is investigating strain accumulation using GPS along a zone of three widely-spaced Holocene strike-slip fault zones in the southwestern Great Basin. The westernmost zone is by far most active seismically (e.g. 1872 M~7.5 Owens Valley earthquake). This study should resolve whether strain accumulation is focused on the western, seismically active zone or across the entire zone of major Holocene faulting.
Selected Publications 

Papers
Field guide books
Discussion papers
Book editorship

Papers

65 Wernicke, B., Davis, J. L., Bennett, R. A., Normandeau, J. E., Friedrich, A. M., and Niemi, N. A., Tectonic implications of a dense continuous GPS velocity field at Yucca Mountain, Nevada: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 109, n. B12404, doi:10.1029/2003JB002832.

64 Niemi, N.A., Wernicke, B.P., Friedrich, A.M., Simons, M., Bennett, R.A., Davis, J.L., 2004, BARGEN continuous GPS data across the eastern Basin and Range province, and implications for fault system dynamics: Geophysical Journal International, v. 159, p. 842-862, doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2004.02454.x.

63 Smith, K. D., von Seggern, D., Blewitt G., Preston, L., Anderson, J. G., Wernicke, B. P. and Davis, J. L., 2004, "Silent" tectonic event under Lake Tahoe, California; associated mountain growth and swarm of lower-crustal earthquakes, Science, v. 305, p. 1277-1280, doi:10.1126/science.1101304.

62 Friedrich, A. M., Lee, J., Wernicke B. P., and Sieh, K., 2004, Geologic context of geodetic data across a Basin and Range normal fault, Crescent Valley, Nevada: Tectonics, v. 23 (in press).

61 McQuarrie N., Stock, J. M., Verdel, C., and Wernicke, B. P., 2003, Cenozoic evolution of Neotethys and implications for the causes of plate motions, Geophysical Research Letters, v. 30, no. 20, 2036, doi:10.1029/2003GL017992.

60 Park, S.K. and Wernicke, B.P., 2003, Electrical conductivity images of Quaternary faults and Tertiary detachments in the California Basin and Range: Tectonics, v. 22 1030, doi:10.1029/2001TC001324.

59 Davis, J. L.; Bennett, R. A.; Wernicke, B. P., 2003, Assessment of GPS velocity accuracy for the Basin and Range Geodetic Network (BARGEN) Geophysical Research Letters, v. 30, 1411, doi 10.1029/2003GL0169.

58 Bennett, R.A., Wernicke, B.P., Niemi, N.A., Friedrich, A.M. and Davis, J.L., 2003, Contemporary strain rates in the northern Basin and Range province from GPS data: Tectonics, v. 22, doi 10.1029/2001TC001355.

57 Friedrich, A.M., Wernicke, B.P., Niemi, N.A., Bennett, R.A. and Davis, J.L., 2003, Comparison of geodetic and geologic data from the Wasatch region, Utah and implications for the spectral character of earth deformation at periods of ten to ten million years: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 108, doi 10.1029/2001JB000682.

56 Elosegui, P., Davis, J.L., Mitrovica, J.X., Bennett, R.A., and Wernicke, B.P., 2003, Crustal loading near Great Salt Lake, Utah: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 30, 1111, doi: 10.1029/2002GL016579.

55 Bennett, R.A., Davis, J.L., Normandeau, J.E. and Wernicke, B.P., 2002, Space geodetic measurements of plate boundary deformation in the western U.S. Cordillera: in Stein, S.A. and Freymuller, J.T., eds., Plate Boundary Zones, American Geophysical Union Geodynamics Series, v. 30, p. 27-55.

54 Petronis, M.S., Geissman, J.W., Holm, D.K., Wernicke, B.P., and Schauble, E., 2002, Assessing vertical axis rotations in large-magnitude extensional terrane, California: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 107, No. B1, doi 10.1029/2001JB000239.

53 House, M.A., Wernicke, B.P., and Farley, K.A., 2001, Paleo-geomorphology of the Sierra Nevada, California from (U-Th)/He ages in apatite: American Journal of Science, v. 301, p. 77-102.

52 Niemi, N.A., Wernicke, B.P., Brady, R.J., Saleeby, J.B., and Dunne, G.C., 2001, Distribution and provenance of the middle Miocene Eagle Mountain Formation, and implications for regional kinematic analysis of the Basin and Range province: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 113, no. 4, p. 419-442.

51 Snow, J.K., and Wernicke, B.P., 2000, Cenozoic tectonism in the central Basin and Range: Magnitude, rate and distribution of upper crustal strain: American Journal of Science, v. 300, p. 659-719.

50 Wernicke, Brian, Friedrich, A.M, Niemi, N.A, Bennett, R.A., and Davis, J.L., 2000, Dynamics of plate boundary fault systems from Basin and Range Geodetic Network (BARGEN) and geologic data: GSA Today, v. 10, p. 1-7

49 Brady, R.J., Wernicke, B.P., and Fryxell, J.E., 2000, Kinematic evolution of a large-offset continental normal fault system, South Virgin Mountains, Nevada: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 112, p. 1375-1397.

48 Brady, R.J., Wernicke, B.P., McNutt, M., Mutter, J., and Correa, G., 2000, Results of the Basin and Range Geoscientific Experiment (BARGE): A marine-style seismic reflection survey across the eastern boundary of the central Basin and Range Province: G3, v. 1, September 22, 2000, 9 p.

47 Reiners, P. W., Brady, R., Farley, K. A., Fryxell, J. E., Wernicke, B., and Lux, D., 2000, Helium and argon thermochronometry of the Gold Butte block, South Virgin Mountains, Nevada: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 178, p. 315-326.

46 Bennett, R.A., Davis, J.L., Wernicke, B.P., 1999, Present-day pattern of Cordilleran deformation in the western United States: Geology, v. 27, p. 371-374.

45 Lewis, C.J., Wernicke, B.P., Selverstone, J., and Bartley, J.M., 1999, Deep burial of the footwall of the northern Snake Range d'collement, Nevada: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 111, p. 39-51.

44 House, M.A., Wernicke, B.P., and Farley, K.A., 1998, Dating topography of the Sierra Nevada using apatite (U-Th)/He ages: Nature, v. 396, p. 66-69.

43 Wernicke Brian, and Snow, J.K., 1998, Cenozoic tectonism in the central Basin and Range: Motion of the Sierran-Great Valley Block: International Geology Review, v. 40, p. 403-410.

42 Bennett, R.A., Davis, J.L., and Wernicke, B.P., 1998, Continuous GPS measurements of contemporary deformation across the northern Basin and Range: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 25, p. 563-566.

41 Wernicke, Brian, Davis, J.L., Bennett, R.A., El�segui, P., Abolins, M., Brady, R.J., House, M.A., Niemi, N.A., and Snow, J.K., 1998, Anomalous strain accumulation in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada: Science, v. 279, p. 2096-2100.

40 Bennett, R.A., Davis, J.L., El�segui, P., Wernicke, B.P., Snow, J.K., Abolins, M.J., House, M.A., Stirewalt, G.L., and Ferrill, D.A. 1997, Global Positioning System constraints on fault slip rates in the Death Valley region, California and Nevada: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 24, p. 3073-3076.

39 House, M.A., Wernicke, B.P., Farley, K.A., and Dumitru, T.A., 1997, Cenozoic thermal evolution of the central Sierra Nevada, California, from (U-Th)/He thermochronometry: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 151, p. 167-179.

38 Wernicke, Brian, and Getty, S., 1997, Intracrustal subduction and gravity currents in the deep crust: Sm-Nd, Ar-Ar and thermobarometric constraints from the Skagit Gneiss complex, Washington: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 109, p. 1149-1166.

37 Dickinson, W. R., and Wernicke, B.P., 1997, Reconciliation of San Andreas slip discrepancy by a combination of interior basin-range extension and transrotation near the coast: Geology, v. 25, p. 663-665.

36 Fliedner, M.M., Ruppert, S., Malin, P.E., Park, S.K., Jiracek, G., Phinney, R.A., Saleeby, J.B., Wernicke, B.P., Clayton, R., Keller, R., Miller, K., Jones, C., Luetgert, J.H., Mooney, W.D., Oliver H., Klemperer, S.L., and Thompson, G.A., 1996, Three-dimensional crustal structure of the southern Sierra Nevada from seismic fan profiles and gravity modeling: Geology, v. 24, p. 367-370.

35 Wernicke, Brian, Clayton, R., Ducea, M., Jones, C.H., Park, S., Ruppert, S., Saleeby, J., Snow, J.K., Squires, L., Fliedner, M., Jiracek, G., Keller, R., Klemperer, S., Luetgert, J., Malin, P., Miller, K., Mooney, W., Oliver, H., and Phinney, R., 1996, Origin of high mountains in the continents: The southern Sierra Nevada: Science, v. 271, p. 190-193.

34 Wernicke, Brian, 1995, Low-angle normal faults and seismicity: A review: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 100, p. 20,159-20, 174.

33 Asmerom, Y., Jacobsen, S.B., and Wernicke, B.P., 1994, Variations in magma source regions during large-scale continental extension, Death Valley region, western United States: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 125, p. 235-254.

32 Holm, D.K., Geissman, J.W., and Wernicke, B.P., 1993, Tilt and rotation of the footwall of a major normal fault system: Paleomagnetism of the Black Mountains metamorphic core complex, Death Valley, California: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 105, p. 1373-1387.

31 Getty, S.R., Selverstone, J., Wernicke, B.P., Jacobsen, S.B., Aliberti, E., and Lux, D.R., 1993, Sm-Nd dating of multiple garnet growth events in an arc-continent collision zone, northwestern U.S. Cordillera: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, v. 115, p. 45-57.

30 Sieh, K., Jones, L., Hauksson, E., Hudnut, K., Eberhart-Phillips, D., Heaton, T., Hough, S., Hutton, K., Kanamori, H., Lilje, A., Lindvall, S., McGill, S., Mori, J., Rubin, C., Spotila, J.A., Stock, J., Thio, H.K., Treiman, J., Wernicke, B.P., and Zachariasen, J., 1993, Near- field investigations of the Landers earthquake sequence, April to July, 1992: Science, v. 260, p. 171-176.

29 Jones, C.H., Wernicke, B.P., Farmer, G.L., Walker, J.D., Coleman, D.S., McKenna, L.W., and Perry, F.V., 1992, Variations across and along a major continental rift: An interdisciplinary study of the Basin and Range Province, western USA: Tectonophysics, v. 213, p. 57-96.

28 Fryxell, J.E., Salton, G.S., Selverstone, J.E., and Wernicke, B.P., 1992, Gold Butte crustal section, South Virgin Mountains, Nevada: Tectonics, v. 11, p. 1099-1120.

27 Wernicke, Brian, 1992, Cenozoic extensional tectonics of the U.S. Cordillera: in Burchfiel, B.C., P.W. Lipman, and M.L. Zoback, eds., The Cordilleran Orogen: Conterminous U.S., The Geology of North America, G-3: Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, p. 553-582.

26 Selverstone, J.E., Wernicke, B.P., and Aliberti, E.A., 1992, Intracontinental subduction and hinged unroofing along the Salmon River suture zone, west-central Idaho: Tectonics, v. 11, p. 124-144.

25 Fitzgerald, P.G., Fryxell, J.E., and Wernicke, B.P., 1991, Miocene crustal extension and uplift in southeastern Nevada: Constraints from fission track analysis: Geology, v. 19, p. 1013-1016.

24 Kruse, S., McNutt, M., Phipps-Morgan, J., Royden, L., and Wernicke, B.P., 1991, Lithospheric extension near Lake Mead, Nevada: A model for ductile flow in the lower crust: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 96, p. 4435-4456.

23 Kriens, B.J., and Wernicke, B.P., 1990, Nature of the contact zone between the North Cascades crystalline core and the Methow sequence in the Ross Lake area, Washington: Implications for Cordilleran tectonics: Tectonics, v. 9, p. 953-981.

22 Wernicke, Brian, 1990, The fluid crustal layer and its implications for continental dynamics: in Salisbury, M., ed., Exposed Cross Sections of the Continental Crust, NATO Advanced Studies Institute, Kluwer Academic Publishers, D. Riedel, Dordrecht, Holland, p. 509-544.

21 Kriens, B.J., and Wernicke, B.P., 1990, Characteristics of a continental margin magmatic arc as a function of depth: The Skagit- Methow crustal section: in Salisbury, M., ed., Exposed Cross Sections of the Continental Crust, NATO Advanced Studies Institute, Kluwer Academic Publishers, D. Riedel, Dordrecht, Holland, p. 159-173.

20 Holm, D.K., and Wernicke, B.P., 1990, Black Mountains crustal section, Death Valley extended terrain, California: Geology, v. 18, p. 520-523.

19 Axen, G.J., Wernicke, B.P., Skelly, M.J., and Taylor, W.J., 1990, Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonics of the Sevier thrust belt in the Virgin River Valley area, southern Nevada: in Wernicke, B., ed., Basin and Range extensional tectonics near the latitude of Las Vegas, Nevada, Geological Society of America Memoir 176, p. 123-153.

18 Asmerom, Y., Snow, J.K., Holm, D.K., Jacobsen, S.B., Wernicke, B.P., and Lux, D.R., 1990, Rapid uplift and crustal growth in extensional environments: An isotopic study from the Death Valley region, California: Geology, v. 18, p. 223-226.

17 Wernicke, Brian, and Tilke, P.G., 1990, Extensional tectonic framework of the U.S. central Atlantic passive margin: in Tankard, A.J., and Balkwill, H.R., eds., Extensional Tectonics and Stratigraphy of the North Altantic Margins, Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Memoir 46, p. 7-21.

16 Snow, J.K., and Wernicke, B.P., 1989, Uniqueness of geological correlations: An example from the Death Valley extended terrain: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 101, p. 1351-1362.

15 Wernicke, Brian, Axen, G.J., and Snow, J.K., 1988, Basin and Range extensional tectonics at the latitude of Las Vegas, Nevada: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 100, p. 1738-1757.

14 Wernicke, Brian, and Axen, G.J., 1988, On the role of isostasy in the evolution of normal fault systems: Geology, v. 16, p. 848-851.

13 Shawe, D.R., Blank, H.R., Jr., Wernicke, B.P., Axen, G.J., Barton, H.N., Day, G.W., and Rains, R.L., 1988, Mineral Resources of the Mormon Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Lincoln County, Nevada: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin, v. 1729-B, 20 p.

12 Wernicke, Brian, and Klepacki, D.W., 1988, Escape hypothesis for the Stikine block: Geology, v. 16, p. 461-465.

11 Hodges, K.V., Walker, J.D., and Wernicke, B.P., 1987, Footwall structural evolution of the Tucki Mountain detachment system, Death Valley region, southeastern California: Geological Society Special Publication, no. 28, p. 393-408.

10 Sonder, L.J., England, P.C., Wernicke, B.P., and Christiansen, R.L., 1987, A physical model for Cenozoic extension of western North America: Geological Society Special Publication, no. 28, p. 187-201.

9 Wernicke, Brian, Christiansen, R.L., England, P.C., and Sonder, L.J., 1987, Tectonomagmatic evolution of Cenozoic extension in the North American Cordillera, Geological Society Special Publication, no. 28, p. 203-221.

8 Wernicke, Brian, 1986, Whole-lithosphere normal simple shear: an interpretation of deep-reflection profiles in Great Britain: in Barazangi, M., and Brown, L.D., eds., International Symposium on Deep Structure of the Continental Crust: Results from Reflection Seismology, American Geophysical Union Geodynamics Series, v. 14, p. 331-339.

7 Wernicke, Brian, 1985, Uniform-sense normal simple shear of the continental lithosphere, Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 22, p. 108-125.

6 Wernicke, Brian, Walker, J.D., and Beaufait, M.S., 1985, Structural discordance between Neogene detachments and frontal Sevier thrusts, central Mormon Mountains, southern Nevada, Tectonics, v. 4, p. 213-246.

5 Bartley, J.M., and Wernicke, B.P., 1984, The Snake Range d�collement interpreted as a major extensional shear zone, Tectonics, v. 3, p. 647-657.

4 Burchfiel, B.C., Wernicke, B.P., Willemin, J.H., Axen, G.J., and Cameron, C.S., 1982, A new type of d�collement thrust, Nature, v. 300, p. 513-515.

3 Wernicke, Brian, Spencer, J.E., Burchfiel, B.C., and Guth, P.L., 1982, Magnitude of crustal extension in the southern Great Basin, Geology, v. 10, p. 499-502.

2 Wernicke, Brian, and Burchfiel, B.C., 1982, Modes of extensional tectonics, Journal of Structural Geology, v. 4, p. 105-115.

1 Wernicke, Brian, 1981, Low-angle normal faults in the Basin and Range province: nappe tectonics in an extending orogen, Nature, v. 291, p. 645-648.

Field guidebooks

7 Brady, R.J., Wernicke, B.P., Niemi, N.A., 2000, Reconstruction of Basin and Range extension and westward motion of the Sierra Nevada Block, in Lageson, D.R., Peters, S.G., and Lahren, N.M., eds., Great Basin and Sierra Nevada: Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America Field Guide 2, p. 75-96.
6 Wernicke, Brian, Snow, J.K., Hodges, K.V., and Walker, J.D., 1993, Structural constraints on Neogene tectonism in the southern Great Basin: in Lahren, M.M., Trexler, J.H., Jr., and Spinosa, C., eds., Crustal Evolution of the Great Basin and the Sierra Nevada, Geological Society of America Cordilleran/Rocky Mountain Sections Meeting Fieldtrip Guidebook, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Nevada, Reno, p. 453-479.
5 Wernicke, Brian, Snow, J.K., Axen, G.J., Burchfiel, B.C., Hodges, K.V., Walker, J.D., and Guth, P.L., 1989, Extensional Tectonics in the Basin and Range Province Between the Southern Sierra Nevada and the Colorado Plateau: Field Trip Guidebook T 138, 28th International Geologic Congress, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 80 p.
4 Wernicke, Brian, Walker, J.D., and Hodges, K.V., 1988, Field Guide to the northern part of the Tucki Mountain fault system, Death Valley region, California: in Weide, D.L., and Faber, M.L., eds., This Extended Land, Geological Journeys in the Southern Basin and Range, Geological Society of America Cordilleran Section Field Trip Guidebook, p. 58-63.
3 Wernicke, Brian, Snow, J.K., and Walker, J.D., 1988, Correlation of Early Mesozoic thrusts in the southern Great Basin and their possible indication of 250-300 km of Neogene crustal extension: in Weide, D.L., and Faber, M.L., eds., This Extended Land, Geological Journeys in the Southern Basin and Range, Geological Society of America Cordilleran Section Field Trip Guidebook, p. 255-268.
2 Wernicke, Brian, Hodges, K.V., and Walker, J.D., 1986, Geological setting of the Tucki Mountain area, Death Valley National Monument, California: in Dunne, G.C., ed., Mesozoic and Cenozoic Structural Evolution of Selected Areas, East-Central California, Guidebook and Volume, Department of Geology, California State University at Los Angeles, p. 67-80.
1 Wernicke, Brian, Guth, P.L., and Axen, G.J., 1984, Tertiary extensional tectonics in the Sevier thrust belt of southern Nevada, in Lintz, J.P., Jr., ed., Western Geological Excursions Volume 4, Geological Society of America Field Trip Guidebook, McKay School of Mines, Reno, p. 473-510.

Discussion papers

11 Brady, R.J., Wernicke B.P., and Fryxell J.E., 2002, Reply to Comment on Kinematic evolution of a large-offset continental normal fault system, South Virgin Mountains, Nevada: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 114, p. 126-128.

10 Wernicke, Brian, 1999, Tectonic Evolution of the Death Valley Region: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 99-153, p. 10-18.

9 Wernicke, B., and Spencer, J., 1999, Retrospective on Low-angle (denudation) faults, hinterland of the Sevier orogenic belt, eastern Nevada and western Utah by Richard Lee Armstrong, in Moores, E.M., Sloan, D., and Stout, D.L., eds., Classic Cordilleran Concepts: A View from California: Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America Special Paper 338, p. 357-362.

8 Snow, J.K., and Wernicke, B.P., 1993, Reply to Discussion by Stone, P., and Stevens, C.H., 1992, Large-magnitude Permian shortening and continental margin tectonics in the southern Cordillera: Geological Society of American Bulletin, v. 105, p. 279-283.

7 Axen, G.J., and Wernicke, B.P., 1991, Comment on Tertiary extension and contraction of lower plate rocks in the central Mojave metamorphic core complex, southern California by John M. Bartley, John M. Fletcher, and Allen F. Glazner: Tectonics, v. 10, p. 1084-1086.

6 Wernicke, Brian, Axen, G.J., and Snow, J.K., 1990, Reply to Discussion on Basin and Range extensional tectonics at the latitude of Las Vegas, Nevada by Corbett, K.: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 102, p. 269-270.

5 Klepacki, D.W., and Wernicke, B.P., 1989, Reply to Comment on Escape hypothesis for the Stikine block by M.F. McGroder and P.J. Umhoefer: Geology, v. 17, p. 1162-1163.

4 Wernicke, Brian, and Axen, G.J., 1989, Reply to Comment on On the role of isostasy in the evolution of normal fault systems by Carpenter, D.G., et al.: Geology, v. 17, p. 775-776.

3 Wernicke, Brian, and Bartley, J.M., 1985, Reply to Comment on The Snake Range d'collement interpreted as a major extensional shear zone by Gans, P.B., and Miller, E.L., Tectonics, v. 4, p. 417-419.

2 Wernicke, Brian, Spencer, J.E., and Guth, P.L., 1983, Reply to Comment to on Magnitude of crustal extension in the southern Great Basin, Geology, v. 11, p. 496.

1 Wernicke, Brian, 1982, Comment and Reply on Mesozoic evolution, hinterland of the Sevier orogenic belt, Geology, v. 10, p. 3-5.

Book editorship

1 Wernicke, Brian (ed.), 1990, Basin and Range Extensional Tectonics Near the Latitude of Las Vegas, Nevada, Geological Society of America Memoir 176, 500 p.

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